Trail Closure

At Kirby Park, the accessible trail remains closed due to storm damage.

Elkhorn Slough Graduate Research Fellows

Elkhorn Slough Graduate Research Fellows

What is a Graduate Research Fellow?

The National Estuarine Research Reserve System’s GRF program has produced high quality research focused on improving coastal management while providing students with the opportunity to contribute to research and monitoring at a reserve. In the past, as part of the Reserve System, each National Estuarine Research Reserve provided opportunities for students to address research questions and estuarine management issues of local, regional and national significance.

For more information on fellowships visit the national program webpage.

Graduate Research Fellows

Brent Hughes (2011-2014)
Ph. D.
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of California, Santa Cruz

Brent is exploring the drivers of ecological communities at the land/sea interface. This work focuses on the relationship between the seagrass Zostera marina and ephemeral algae, and the natural and anthropogenic factors that influence their interaction. The motivation for this work has been the observation that certain populations of Zostera in California are able to persist despite intense eutrophication. This goes against the current paradigm that eutrophication (i.e. increased macroalgal and phytoplankton blooms), generally leads to a shift in dominance of primary producer communities from seagrass to ephemeral algae. In addition to studying seagrass, Brent is exploring the consequences of nutrient enrichment and eutrophication on the nursery function of estuaries.

Beheshti, K. M., Williams, S. L., Boyer, K. E., Endris, C., Clemons, A., Grimes, T., Wasson, K., & Hughes, B. B. (2021). Rapid enhancement of multiple ecosystem services following the restoration of a coastal foundation species. Ecological Applications, e02466. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2466Beheshti, K. M., Wasson, K., Angelini, C., Silliman, B. R., & Hughes, B. B. (2021). Long-term study reveals top-down effect of crabs on a California salt marsh. Ecosphere, 12(8), e03703. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3703Beheshti, K., Hughes, B. B., Boyer, K. E., & Williams, S. L. (2018). Eelgrass Restoration Handbook: the how, when and where of restoring eelgrass habitat. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Beheshti_2018_Eelgrass_Restoration_Handbook.pdfWasson, K., Hughes, B. B., Berriman, J. S., Chang, A. L., Deck, A. K., Dinnel, P. A., Endris, C., Espinoza, M., Dudas, S., Ferner, M. C., Grosholz, E. D., Kimbro, D., Ruesink, J. L., Trimble, A. C., Vander Schaaf, D., Zabin, C. J., & Zacherl, D. C. (2016). Coast-wide recruitment dynamics of Olympia oysters reveal limited synchrony and multiple predictors of failure. Ecology, 97(12), 3503–3516. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1602Eby, R., Scoles, R., Hughes, B. B., & Wasson, K. (2017). Serendipity in a salt marsh: detecting frequent sea otter haul outs in a marsh ecosystem. Ecology, 98(11), 2975–2977. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1965Wasson, K., Gossard, D., Gardner, L., Hain, P., Zabin, C. J., Fork, S., Ridlon, A., Bible, J., Deck, A., & Hughes, B. B. (2020). A scientific framework for conservation aquaculture: A case study of oyster restoration in central California. Biological Conservation, 250. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Wasson_et_al_2020_A_Scientific_Framework_For.pdfHughes, B. B., Wasson, K., Tinker, M. T., Williams, S. L., Carswell, L. P., Boyer, K. E., Beck, M. W., Eby, R., Scoles, R., Staedler, M., Espinosa, S., Hessing-Lewis, M., Foster, E. U., M. Beheshti, K., Grimes, T. M., Becker, B. H., Needles, L., Tomoleoni, J. A., Rudebusch, J., … Silliman, B. R. (2019). Species recovery and recolonization of past habitats: lessons for science and conservation from sea otters in estuaries. PeerJ, 7, e8100. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8100Hughes, B. B. (n.d.). Estuarine & Wetland Ecosystems: the first steps in developing an approach to leveraging existing monitoring programs. 42. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2017_Estuarine_And_Wetland_Ecosystems.pdfHughes, B., Haskins, J., & Wasson, K. (2010). Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2010: 1 Assessment of the effects of nutrient loading in estuarine wetlands of the Elkhorn Slough watershed: a regional eutrophication report card (Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2010, p. 35). http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2010_Assessment_of_the_Effects.pdfHughes, B., Haskins, J., & Wasson, K. (2010). Assessment of the effects of nutrient loading in estuarine wetlands of the Elkhorn Slough watershed: a regional eutrophication report card. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2010:1. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2010_Assessment_Of_The_Effects.pdfHughes, B., Fountain, M., Carlisle, A., Levey, M., & Gleason, M. (2012). The impacts of nutrient loading and environmental conditions on the fish assemblage and available nursery habitat in Elkhorn Slough (Nature Conservancy, Elkhorn Slough Foundation, p. 53). http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2012_The_Impact_Of_Nutrient.pdfHughes, B. B., Eby, R., Van Dyke, E., Tinker, M. T., Marks, C. I., Johnson, K. S., & Wasson, K. (2013). Recovery of a top predator mediates negative eutrophic effects on seagrass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(38), 15313–15318. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2013_Recovery_Of_A_Top.pdfHughes, B. B., Haskins, J., & Wasson, K. (2011). Identifying factors that influence expression of eutrophication in a central California estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 439, 31–43. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2011_Identifying_Factors_That_Influencea.pdfJeppesen, R., Rodriguez, M., Rinde, J., Haskins, J., Hughes, B., Mehner, L., & Wasson, K. (2016). Effects of Hypoxia on Fish Survival and Oyster Growth in a Highly Eutrophic Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts, 1–10. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Jeppesen_2016_Effects_Of_Hypoxia_On.pdfJohnson, E. K., & Hughes, B. (2010). Variable effects of Ulva spp. on dissolved oxygen dynamics. 1. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Johnson_2010_Variable_Effects_Of_Ulva.pdfHughes, B. B., Levey, M. D., Brown, J. A., Fountain, M. C., Carlisle, A. B., Litvin, S. Y., Greene, C. M., Heady, W. N., & Gleason, M. G. (2014). Nursery functions of US West Coast estuaries: The state of knowledge for juveniles of focal invertebrate and fish species. Nature Conservancy. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2014_Nursery_Function_Of_Us.pdfHughes, B. B. (2014). Food webs, resilience, and functioning of an estuary under multiple threats: Lessons learned from Elkhorn Slough [UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2014_Food_Webs_Resilience_And.pdfHughes, B. B., Levey, M. D., Fountain, M. C., Carlisle, A. B., Chavez, F. P., & Gleason, M. G. (2015). Climate mediates hypoxic stress on fish diversity and nursery function at the land–sea interface. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(26), 8025–8030. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Hughes_2015_Climate_Mediates_Hypoxic_Stress.pdf

Carla Fresquez (2009-2011)
Ph. D.
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of California, Santa Cruz

Carla Fresquez is trying to tease apart the various factors that control the distribution of a threatened plant community at Elkhorn Slough, the high marsh-upland ecotone, a relatively diverse part of the salt marsh that forms the transition zone between the marsh and adjacent upland habitat. This community is limited to a very narrow area around the periphery of the slough with distinct boundaries with the upland and marsh habitats. She is identifying the abiotic and biotic process and interactions that determine these distinct boundaries. In addition, she is also trying to quantify how the relative influence of each of these types of factors changes under the varying conditions found across the gradient from marsh to upland.

Science in Action: King Tide at Elkhorn Slough. December 2012 by Carla Fresquez

Fresquez, C. C. (2014). The Ecological Factors Influencing The Marsh-Upland Ecotonal Plant Community And Their Use As Part Of An Effective Restoration Strategy [University of California, Santa Cruz]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Fresquez_2014_The_Ecological_Factors_Influencing.pdfWasson, K., Woolfolk, A., & Fresquez, C. (2013). Ecotones as Indicators of Changing Environmental Conditions: Rapid Migration of Salt Marsh–Upland Boundaries. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Wasson_2013_Ecotones_As_Indicators_Of.pdf

Joanna Nelson (2008-2011)
Ph.D.
Environmental Studies
University of California, Santa Cruz

Joanna investigated global-change ecology, resilience, and non-linear ecosystem responses to change, in Elkhorn Slough, where N pollution and sea-level rise converge at the land-sea interface, impacting rare salt marsh habitats and their provision of ecosystem services. She focused on the ecosystem service of water filtration, where salt marsh plants intercept watershed-derived nitrogen (N) and buffer the nearshore ocean from nutrient pollution. Nitrogen pollution and sea-level rise both impact coastal ecosystems, yet their interacting effects are poorly understood. She quantified the effects of sea-level rise and nitrogen addition on marsh plant growth and capacity to take up and store N, using two approaches: 1) a manipulative field experiment with simulated sea-level rise and added nitrogen; and 2) a landscape-scale observational study along a nitrogen gradient in Elkhorn Slough and an elevational gradient in the marsh intertidal zone.

Milliken, R., Nelson, J., Hildebrandt, W., & Mikkelsen, P. (1999). The Moss Landing Hill Site (pp. 1–14). California State University. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Milliken_1999_The_Moss_Landing_Hill.pdfNelson, J. L., & Zavaleta, E. S. (2012). Salt Marsh as a coastal filter for the oceans: Changes in function with experimental increases in nitrogen loading and sea-level rise. Plos One, 7(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038558Nelson, J. (2011). Climate change interactions at the edge : Wildfire and subsistence in the boreal forest, and sea-level rise and nitrogen loads at the California land-sea margin [University of California at Santa Cruz]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Nelson_2011_Climate_Change_Interactions_At.pdfWatson, E. B. W., Wigand, C., Nelson, J., & Wasson, K. (2011). Consequences of climate change, eutrophication, and anthropogenic impacts to coastal salt marshes: multiple stressors reduce resiliency and sustainability (Poster). http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Watson_2011_Consequences_Of_Climate_Change.pdf

Rikke Kvist Preisler (2006 – 2009)
Ph.D.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of California, Santa Cruz

Rikke investigated the biogeographic variation in abundance, morphology, and behavior of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas. Results from crab monitoring in Elkhorn Slough have shown that while relative abundances of native crabs have been declining since 2001, relative abundance of the European green crab has been increasing. This intriguing pattern brought to our attention that the invasion success of the European green crab is highly variable in different estuaries and bays. Rikke quantified and compared success of the green crab in estuaries and bays on the US West Coast, the US East Coast, and in Europe by measuring green crab size distributions, fecundity, relative abundance and behavior.

Mercado, L., Haskins, J., & Preisler, R. K. (2014). A Report Card of Water Quality for the Elkhorn Slough estuary in 2013. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2014:1. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Mercado_2014_A_Report_Card_Of.pdfPreisler, R. K., Wasson, K., Wolff, W. J., & Tyrrell, M. C. (2009). Invasions of estuaries vs the adjacent open coast: a global perspective. In Biological invasions in marine ecosystems (pp. 587–617). Springer. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Preisler_2009_Invasions_Of_Estuaries_Vs.pdfRitter, A. F., Wasson, K., Lonhart, S. I., Preisler, R. K., Woolfolk, A. M., Griffith, K. A., Connors, S., & Heiman, K. W. (2008). Ecological signatures of anthropogenically altered tidal exchange in estuarine ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts, 31(3), 554–571. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Ritter_2008_Ecological_Signatures_Of_Anthropogenically.pdfPreisler, R. K. (2010). Biogeographic variation in abundance, habitat, and behavior of the European green crab Carcinus maenas [Dissertation, UC Santa Cruz]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Preisler_2010_Biogeographic_Variation_In_Abundance.pdf

Katie Griffith (2005 – 2008)
Ph.D.
Ocean Sciences Department
University of California, Santa Cruz

Katie examined the distribution and abundance of Cuscuta salina (salt marsh dodder). C. salina is a native, parasitic plant that is often found attached to Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) in Elkhorn Slough’s salt marshes. Because C. salina does not photosynthesize, it survives by inserting plugs of tissue, called haustoria, into the host tissue and extracting water, sugars, and nutrients. The distribution of C. salina is extremely patchy and Katie investigated, both experimentally and through surveys, how this distribution is related to host quality, abiotic conditions, and/or seed recruitment.

Griffith, K. A. (2010). Pickleweed: factors that control distribution and abundance in Pacific Coast estuaries and a case study of Elkhorn Slough, California. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2010:9. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Griffith_2010_Pickleweed_Factors_That_Control.pdfGriffith, K. A. (2008). The ecology of a parasitic plant and its host plant in a central California salt marsh [Doctoral Dissertation, University of California Santa Cruz]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Griffith_2008_The_Ecology_Of_A.pdfRitter, A. F., Wasson, K., Lonhart, S. I., Preisler, R. K., Woolfolk, A. M., Griffith, K. A., Connors, S., & Heiman, K. W. (2008). Ecological signatures of anthropogenically altered tidal exchange in estuarine ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts, 31(3), 554–571. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Ritter_2008_Ecological_Signatures_Of_Anthropogenically.pdf

Scott Wankel (2003 – 2006)
Ph.D.
Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences
Stanford University

Scott’s research focused on the use of stable isotopic tools, primarily the nitrogen (d15N) and oxygen (d18O) isotopic composition of nitrate, a ubiquitous contaminant found in Elkhorn Slough, for understanding important sources to the slough as well as transformations within marsh/mudflat regions. Surveys of water samples from over three years showed a high degree of variability in isotopic composition, highlighting both variability in sources of nitrate with the main channel as well as the hydrodynamic complexity of mixing of these sources. A compilation of these data show the influence of saltmarsh/mudflat sediments in controlling nitrate isotopic composition with the main channel through simultaneous denitrification and nitrification. Laboratory based sediment core incubations indicated very active microbial communities at the water interface, including those responsible for mitigating large amounts of nitrate, a ubiquitous aquatic contaminant within the Elkhorn Slough ecosystem. Furthermore, his work highlighted the spatial variability that exists between relatively uncontaminated sites, such as South Marsh, and more impacted sites, such as Hudson Landing. The impacted sites exhibited generally higher denitrification rates, despite lower availability of organic carbon, suggesting microbial communities which are adapted to high nutrient conditions found at more polluted sites.

Wankel, S. D., Kendall, C., & Paytan, A. (2009). Using nitrate dual isotopic composition (delta N-15 and delta O-18) as a tool for exploring sources and cycling of nitrate in an estuarine system: Elkhorn Slough, California. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 114. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jg000729Wankel, S. D., Mosier, A. C., Hansel, C. M., Paytan, A., & Francis, C. A. (2011). Spatial Variability in Nitrification Rates and Ammonia-Oxidizing Microbial Communities in the Agriculturally Impacted Elkhorn Slough Estuary, California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(1), 269–280. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.01318-10

Kimberly Heiman (2002 – 2005)
Ph. D.
Ecology and Evolution Department
Stanford University

Kimberly worked on the distribution and effect of invasive species on the native communities in Elkhorn Slough. Specifically, she looked at the effect of an invasive reef-forming worm on the biological communities inhabiting native mud flats. Ficopomatus enigmaticus is native to Australia and came to Elkhorn Slough in the 1990s. Today it forms reefs in the eastern end of the Slough. Observations show that this invasive species is spreading throughout the Slough. Understanding the rate of spread and the potential impact of this invasive species was one of Kimberly’s research goals.

Research Summary

No items found.

Sherry Palacios (2001 – 2004)
M.S.
Phycology Department
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories

Sherry assessed the effects of climate change and light availability on the productivity and distribution of seagrasses. Her work included modeling seagrass distributions based on light and CO2 concentrations and validating the results of the model by measuring seagrass distributions in the field. Sherry also tested the parameters of the model by growing seagrasses at varying light and CO2 concentrations in an outdoor mesocosm experiment located at the Duke Energy Power Plant.

Research summary

Palacios, S. L. (2003). Eelgrass response to carbon dioxide enrichment [M. S. Thesis, San Jose State University]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Palacios_2003_Eelgrass_Response_To_Carbon.pdfPalacios, S. (2010). Eelgrass: factors that control distribution and abundance in Pacific Coast estuaries and a case study of Elkhorn Slough, California. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2010:2. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Palacios_2010_Eelgrass_Factors_That_Control.pdfPalacios, S. L. (2010). Eelgrass: factors that control distribution and abundance in Pacific Coast estuaries and a case study of Elkhorn Slough, California (Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2010 No. 2; pp. 1–44). Elkhorn Slough Foundation and Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Palacios_2010_Eelgrass_Factors_that_Control.pdfPalacios, S. (2001). Monitoring of seagrass, marsh plants, and macroalgae in Elkhorn Slough (Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2001 No. 1; pp. 1–15). Elkhorn Slough Foundation and Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Palacios_2001_Monitoring_of_Seagrass_Marsh.pdfPalacios, S. L., & Zimmerman, R. C. (2007). Response of eelgrass Zostera marina to CO2 enrichment: possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 344, 12. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Palacios_2007_Response_Of_Eelgrass_Zostera.pdfPalacios, S., & Wasson, K. (2002). Summary of Christmas bird count shorebird monitoring 1976-2001 at Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve (pp. 1–9) [Unpublished report]. ESNERR. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Palacios_2002_Summary_Of_Christmas_Bird.pdf

Jennifer Brown (2000 – 2002)
Ph.D.
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department
University of California Santa Cruz

Jennifer determined the relative importance of estuaries and shallow coastal areas as juvenile habitat for three species of flatfish that are common on the central California coast. She assessed the importance of these two habitats by comparing growth rates of juvenile flatfish living in estuaries, such as Elkhorn Slough, to those of juveniles living in sandy subtidal habitats, such as Monterey Bay. Jennifer also determined the proportion of adult fish that once used the estuary as juvenile habitat.

Nelson, P. A., Kramer, S., & Brown, J. A. (2010). Selected flatfish: factors that control distribution and abundance in Pacific Coast estuaries and a case study of Elkhorn Slough, California. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2010:6. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Nelson_2010_Selected_Flatfish_Factors_That.pdfBrown, J. A. (2002). A plan for monitoring the fish assemblage in Elkhorn Slough. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2002:1 (Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series No. 1; pp. 1–25). Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Brown_2002_A_Plan_For_Monitoring.pdf

Sarah Connors (1999 – 2000)
M.S.
Ornithology and Mammalogy Lab
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories

Sarah Connors studied shorebird use of mudflats in the Elkhorn Slough watershed. Sarah surveyed all the different mudflat regions within the slough watershed each month for 2 years to determine the abundance of shorebird species present in each area.

Research Summary

Connors, S. (2003). Shorebird distribution in a changing environment: patterns at Elkhorn Slough [Master of Science, San Jose State University]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Connors_2003_Shorebird_Distribution_In_A.pdfConnors, E. (1996). Have degraded salt marshes become suitable intertidal feeding grounds for shorebirds in Elkhorn Slough? (pp. 1–22) [Unpublished Student Report]. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Connors_1996_Have_Degraded_Salt_Marshes.pdfHarvey, J., & Connors, S. (2002). Birds and mammals. In J. M. Caffrey, M. Brown, W. B. Tyler, & M. Silberstein (Eds.), Changes in a California estuary: A profile of Elkhorn Slough. Elkhorn Slough Foundation. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Harvey_Birds_And_Mammals.pdfConnors, S. (2008). Shorebird Use of Muted Tidal Wetlands in a California Estuary. Western Birds, 39, 12. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Connors_2008_Shorebird_Use_Of_Muted.pdfRitter, A. F., Wasson, K., Lonhart, S. I., Preisler, R. K., Woolfolk, A. M., Griffith, K. A., Connors, S., & Heiman, K. W. (2008). Ecological signatures of anthropogenically altered tidal exchange in estuarine ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts, 31(3), 554–571. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Ritter_2008_Ecological_Signatures_Of_Anthropogenically.pdf

James (Jeb) Byers (1998 – 2000)
Ph.D.
University of California, Santa Barbara

Jeb studied the mechanisms by which the invasive mud snail Batillaria attramentaria is managing to displace the native horn snail Cerithidea californica. He discovered that the invader has the competitive edge over the native snail Jeb has also developed and tested predictive models, that can be applied to other invasive species.

Research summary

Wasson, K., Fabian, R. A., Fork, S., Stanganelli, J., Mize, Z., Beheshti, K., Jeppesen, R., Jones, I. J., Zabin, C. J., Walker, S., Lummis, S. C., Emery, M., Moore, J. D., Endris, C., Jolette, D., & Byers, J. E. (2020). Multiple factors contribute to the spatially variable and dramatic decline of an invasive snail in an estuary where it was long-established and phenomenally abundant. Biological Invasions, 22(3), 1181–1202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02172-wByers, J. (1999). The distribution of an introduced mollusc and its role in the long-term demise of a native confamilial species. Biological Invasions, 1(4), 339–352. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Byers_1999_The_Distribution_Of_An.pdf

Andrea Woolfolk (1997 – 1998)
M.S.
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories

Andrea experimentally tested the effects of human trampling and cattle grazing on pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) assemblages at two sites in Elkhorn Slough. Overall, trampling and grazing can decrease S. virginica abundance, lead to changes in community structure, promote invasions by introduced species, and contribute to loss of marsh habitat.

Research summary

Thomsen, A. S., Krause, J., Appiano, M., Tanner, K. E., Endris, C., Haskins, J., Watson, E., Woolfolk, A., Fountain, M. C., & Wasson, K. (2021). Monitoring Vegetation Dynamics at a Tidal Marsh Restoration Site: Integrating Field Methods, Remote Sensing and Modeling. Estuaries and Coasts. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-021-00977-4Wasson, K., Jeppesen, R., Endris, C., Perry, D. C., Woolfolk, A., Beheshti, K., Rodriguez, M., Eby, R., Watson, E. B., & Rahman, F. (2017). Eutrophication decreases salt marsh resilience through proliferation of algal mats. Biological Conservation, 212, 1–11. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Wasson_2017_Eutrophication_Decreases_Salt_Marsh.pdfFork, S., Woolfolk, A., Akhavan, A., Van Dyke, E., Murphy, S., Candiloro, B., Newberry, T., Schreibman, S., Salisbury, J., & Wasson, K. (2015). Biodiversity effects and rates of spread of nonnative eucalypt woodlands in central California. Ecological Applications, 25(8), 2306–2319. https://doi.org/10.1890/14-1943.1Fountain, M., Endris, C., Woolfolk, A., & Wasson, K. (2020). Salt marsh conservation, restoration and enhancement opportunities in and around Elkhorn Slough in the face of sea level rise. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2020:2 (Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series No. 2). ESNERR. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Fountain_2020_Salt_marsh_conservation_restoration.pdfWoolfolk, A. (2020). Moro Cojo: A Historical Perspective A compilation of primary historical data, Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2020: 3 (Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series No. 3). ESNERR. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Woolfolk_2020_Moro_Cojo_A_Historical.pdfWatson, E. B., Gray, A. B., Pasternack, G. B., & Woolfolk, A. M. (2019). Retention of alluvial sediment in the tidal delta of a river draining a small, mountainous coastal watershed. Continental Shelf Research, 182, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2019.05.015Woolfolk, A., & Labadie, Q. (2012). The significance of pickleweed-dominated tidal salt marsh in Elkhorn Slough, California: A literature review. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2012:4. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Woolfolk_2012_The_Significance_Of_Pickleweed.pdfWasson, K., D’Amore, A., Fountain, M., Woolfolk, A., Silberstein, M., Suarez, B., & Feliz, D. (2012). Large-scale restoration alternatives for Elkhorn Slough: summary of interdisciplinary evaluations and recommendations. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2012:5. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Wasson_2012_Large_Scale_Restoration_Alternatives.pdfWoolfolk, A., & Watson, E. B. (2016). Freshwater inputs and tidal marsh elevation in Elkhorn Slough. Elkhorn Slough Technical Report Series 2016:1. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Woolfolk_2016_Freshwater_Inputs_And_Tidal.pdfWasson, K., Suarez, B., Akhavan, A., McCarthy, E., Kildow, J., Johnson, K. S., Fountain, M. C., Woolfolk, A., Silberstein, M., & Pendleton, L. (2015). Lessons learned from an ecosystem-based management approach to restoration of a California estuary. Marine Policy, 58, 60–70. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Wasson_2015_Lessons_Learned_From_An.pdfWasson, K., Woolfolk, A., & Fresquez, C. (2013). Ecotones as Indicators of Changing Environmental Conditions: Rapid Migration of Salt Marsh–Upland Boundaries. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Wasson_2013_Ecotones_As_Indicators_Of.pdfWasson, K., & Woolfolk, A. (2011). Salt marsh-upland ecotones in Central California: vulnerability to invasions and anthropogenic stressors. Wetlands, 31(2), 1–14. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Wasson_2011_Salt_Marsh_Upland_Ecotones.pdfWatson, E. B., Pasternack, G. B., Gray, A. B., Goñi, M., & Woolfolk, A. (2013). Particle size characterization of historic sediment deposition from a closed estuarine lagoon, Central California. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Watson_2013_Particle_Size_Characterization_Of.pdfWoolfolk, A. M. (1999). Effects of human trampling and cattle grazing on salt marsh assemblages in Elkhorn Slough, California (sp) [M.S. Thesis, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and California State University Sacramento]. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Woolfolk_1999_Effects_Of_Human_Trampling.pdfRitter, A. F., Wasson, K., Lonhart, S. I., Preisler, R. K., Woolfolk, A. M., Griffith, K. A., Connors, S., & Heiman, K. W. (2008). Ecological signatures of anthropogenically altered tidal exchange in estuarine ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts, 31(3), 554–571. http://library.elkhornslough.org/attachments/Ritter_2008_Ecological_Signatures_Of_Anthropogenically.pdfWatson, E. B., Wasson, K., Pasternack, G. B., Woolfolk, A., Van Dyke, E., Gray, A. B., Pakenham, A., & Wheatcroft, R. A. (2011). Applications from paleoecology to environmental management and restoration in a dynamic coastal environment. Restoration Ecology, 19(doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00722.x), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00722.x

Blue heron in grass

Photo by: Michael McGreevy

Elkhorn Connects Us

Much of our work at the Elkhorn Slough Reserve is powered by volunteers.

Volunteer With Us
This site uses cookies.

We collect some information to improve your browsing experience. Learn about what information we collect.